Daily Current Affairs - 18-10-2021

The International day for Eradication of Poverty is observed every year on October 17.

Key Points

World Bank Report

History of the day

Poverty was proclaimed as violation of human rights on October 17, 1987. It was proclaimed by people who got assembled at the Trocadero in Paris in order to honour the victims of extreme poverty, hunger as well as violence. On this day, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was also signed in the year 1948. Finally on December 22, 1992, UN General Assembly adopted its resolution 47/196 and proclaimed October 17 as “International Day for the Eradication of Poverty”.

First Commemoration

The first commemoration of International day for Eradication of Poverty” took place in Paris, France, in the year 1987. The day honoured the victims of poverty, hunger and violence.

Chief Minister of Punjab, Charanjit Singh Channi, launched “Mera Ghar Mere Naam” scheme on October 17, 2021.

Key Points

Significance of the scheme

The scheme will provide much needed assistance to all the people, including those from underprivileged and needy strata.

Background

Earlier this scheme was launched for the residents of villages only. But now it has been extended to eligible residents of cities within the lal lakir.

Drone Survey

In order to implement the scheme, the Revenue department has been mandated to undertake drone survey of these residential properties across the rural and urban areas for the purpose of digital mapping.

Property Card

As per report of financial times, China tested a nuclear-capable hypersonic missile in August 2021, demonstrating an advanced space capability.

Findings of the report

Development of hypersonic missiles

Countries like Russia, China and US are developing hypersonic missiles that travel at the speed five times that of sound. However, they run slower than ballistic missiles. These missiles are harder to intercept and can be manoeuvred.

Why China tested this missile?

China developed this missile in the backdrop of increasing US-China rivalry, Chinese pressure on Taiwan as well as standoff between India & China in the eastern Ladakh.

Difference between Hypersonic and Ballistic Missiles

The trajectory of Hypersonic Missiles is not traceable, while trajectory of the Ballistic missiles is traceable.

Hypersonic Missile

The missile through the atmosphere below 90 km at a speed between Mach 5-10. This is a speed where air starts dissociating and high heat loads exits.

The Central Government has set up a working group, with the aim of rolling out an overhauled Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) from kharif season 2022.

Key Points

Function of working group

This working group is expected to address the demand of alternative model, in order to achieve sustainable capacities of insurers as well to achieve rationalised premium pricing in order to cut subsidy burden on the government. It will submit its report in next six months.

Why this group was set up?

The working group will be set up as centre identified a hardening of premium market, inadequate underwriting capacity of insurers and lack of sufficient participation in tenders as major issues, impacting PMFBY during implementation of the scheme.

Premium under the scheme

Under the scheme, premium that farmers are required to fix is 1.5% of the sum insured for rabi crops while 2% for Kharif crops. It is 5% for cash crops under PMFBY. Rest of the premium is split between the Centre and states.

State’s demand

Some of the states have demanded to cap their share of the premium subsidy at 30%, while some states are demanding the Centre to bear entire subsidy.

Which states have exited the scheme?

Gujarat, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Bihar have exited the scheme, till date. Punjab did not implement the crop insurance scheme. Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal have launched their own schemes under which farmers do not pay any premium, however they receive a fixed compensation amount in case of crop failure.

American Space Agency, NASA, launched the first-of-its kind mission on October 16, 2021 to study the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter.

Highlights

Lucy Mission

Lucy mission is a 12-year expedition which will study a record number of asteroids. It will be first mission to explore the Trojans, which are rocky objects orbiting the sun in two swarms that is, ahead of the path of Jupiter and one behind it. Spacecraft will journey to eight different asteroids. It will also visit main belt asteroid and seven Jupiter trojans. This spacecraft is the centrepiece of US$981 million mission.

Background

Lucy Mission was chosen, along with the Psyche mission, on January 4, 2017 as Discovery Program missions 13 and 14 respectively by NASA. Lucy Mission has been named after Lucy hominin skeleton, because study of Trojans will reveal the “fossils of planet formation”.

About Trojan asteroid

Jupiter trojans are also called as trojan asteroids. These are a large group of asteroids which share the orbit of planet Jupiter around the Sun. Each trojan revolves around one of Jupiter’s stable Lagrange points, either L4 or L5. They are distributed in two elongated and curved regions around these Lagrangian points.

An Indian Project, Takachar’s Innovation, that recycles agricultural waste into fuel has won the “Prince William’s inaugural Earthshot Prize”, which is also called as “Eco Oscars.

Highlights

Takachar’s Innovation

Takachar’s Innovation is led by Vidyut Mohan. This technology was recognised for its affordable technology in order to convert crop residues into sellable bio-products. It reduced smoke emissions by 98 per cent. Thus, it calls for improving air quality. Vidyut Mohan was awarded for this technology in “clean our air category”. This award was among fiver other winners of the prize worldwide.

Significance of the technology

World generate around USD 120 billion of agricultural waste per year. When farmers fail to sell, they often burn the waste. Burning of waste have catastrophic consequences for human health as well as environment. Burning causes air pollution, which has reduced life expectancy in some areas by a decade. Thus, this technology is significant in mitigating this challenge.

Background

For the next 10 years, the Earthshot will be awarding £1m each year to each of five projects that are working for findings solutions to the environmental problems on the planet.

About Earthshot Prize

This prize is awarded to five winners each year, whose projects help the environment. It will be awarded annually from 2021 to 2030. It is given by the Royal Foundation, which is headquartered in London, England. The prize is distributed in five separate categories that are supported by UN Sustainable Development Goals. This prize was launched in the year 2020 by Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and David Attenborough.

The Italian Presidency of the G20 grouping has unveiled “G20 Innovation League”, in a bid to create a sustainable future.

G20 Innovation League

Where this event was hosted?

G20 Innovation event was held in Sorrento, Italy. It was supported by Ministry of Foreign Affairs & International Cooperation of Italy, Ministry of Economic Development of Italy and Ministry of Technological Innovation & Digital Transition of Italy. This event was inaugurated by Italian Foreign Minister Luigi Di Maio. Italy is also set to host G20 Summit in Rome on October 30-31, 2021.

Why this summit is significant?

This movement is significant and has been given focus in the backdrop of Covid-19 pandemic and global challenges the pandemic has presented. In this situation, the real challenge is to encourage new international investments and strengthen cooperation among the public & private actors on innovation.

Role of Start-Ups

Start-ups called to present their projects. In order to propose sustainable technological solutions, they took part in five challenges. At the first stage of competition, G-20 countries nominated their promising start-ups. At the second stage, 100 start-ups who made it to finals, were evaluated. Start-ups competed in five categories namely, Clean technology, Artificial Intelligence, Smart Cities & New Mobility, IoT Technology & Wearable Devices and the Future of Healthcare.

A team from 5th Battalion-4 (5/4) Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force) representing the Indian Army won gold medal at the prestigious Cambrian Patrol Exercise which was held in United Kingdom.

About Cambrian Patrol Exercise

Indian Army Team

The Indian Army team took part in the event and competed with a total of 96 teams including 17 international teams representing Special Forces and prestigious Regiments from different parts of the world.

How winner was selected?

During the exercise, teams were assessed with respect to their performance under harsh terrain and inclement cold weather conditions. These conditions presented different challenges to the teams. Teams were also exposed to complex real-world situations in order to assess their reactions in combating the settings.

Why Indian Army team won?

The Indian Army team received rich accolades from all the judges. Team was praised for their excellent navigation skills, overall physical endurance and delivery of patrol orders.

Who presented the medal?

Gold Medal was presented to the Indian Army team by General Sir Mark Carleton-Smith who is the Chief of General Staff of British Army.

The Government of Gujarat has decided to give a financial assistance of Rs 5000 per person belonging to tribal community for pilgrimage Shri Ram Janmabhoomi in Ayodhya.

Ram Janmabhoomi Teerth Kshetra Trust

Government of India had set up this trust on February 5, 2020, for the construction and management of Ram Mandir in Ayodhya. The trust comprises of 15 trustees. It was set up in accordance with the verdict of the Supreme Court in “M Siddiq(D) Thr Lrs v/s Mahant Suresh Das & Ors case”. In the verdict, SC asked the central government to set up a trust for managing the construction of temple within three months of this judgement.

Ram Mandir in Ayodhya

This Hindu temple is being built in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, on Ram Janmabhoomi. Its ground-breaking ceremony was performed on August 5, 2020 by prime minister Narendra Modi.

Presiding deity of the temple

Ram Lalla Virajman is the presiding deity of the temple. Ram Lalla is the infant form of Lord Rama. Ram Lalla was a litigant since 1989 in the court case over the disputed site.

World Food Day is observed every year on October 16. Year 2021 marked the 76th World Food Day.

Key facts

Significance of the day

Starvation is a big problem in several countries, especially in underdeveloped parts of the globe. Thus, awareness is required to address this issue. World Food Day helps in addressing the issue.

World Food Day: History

World Food Day was set up by Member Countries of Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO). It was established at the 20th General Conference of FAO in November 1979. Hungarian Delegation, led by former Hungarian Minister of Agriculture & Food Dr. Pal Romany, played a significant role at the 20th Session and recommended the idea of celebrating this day across the world. It has since been observed in more than 150 countries, every year. It raises awareness of the issues behind poverty and hunger.

Theme of the day

This day in 2021 was celebrated under the theme- “Safe food now for a healthy tomorrow”.

Purpose of the day

The main purpose to celebrate this day is to promote the message that “food is a basic and fundamental human right. It also spread awareness on malnutrition and obesity.