Daily Current Affairs - 01-10-2021

International Translation Day was observed on September 30, honouring the work of Language specialists who contributes significantly on developing the international understanding.

Key facts

Theme of the day

The International Translation Day 2021 was observed under the theme “United in translation.”

Background

This day was started being observed in 1953. Since then, it is being organised by “International Federation of Translators (FIT)”.  First formal celebration of the day was observed in 1991. In mat 2017, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) enacted the Resolution 71/288 regarding the importance of language experts in linking countries and encouraging peace, understanding, & advancement. UNGA designated September 30 as International Translation Day with the resolution 71/288.

Who was St. Jerome?

St. Jerome was an Italian priest, living in north-eastern region of the country. He is most renowned for his efforts of translating New Testament from its Greek manuscripts into Latin. He died on September 30, near Bethlehem.

India and Australia signed the terms of reference (ToR) on September 29, 2021 to conduct navy to navy talks.

Highlights

Key facts about ToR

Objective of ToR

The ToR sets out several broad objectives to achieve deeper mutual understanding, trust and transparency in the bilateral talks. It also seeks to improve goodwill & understanding of each other’s concerns & future directions. It will provide detailed guidance on “conduct of the talks” between both the countries. ToR also provide flexibility over implementation of separate agreements on the basis of specific outcomes of the talks.

Background

First ever Navy to Navy talks was held between both the countries in 2005. Since then, India & Australia has come closer. ToR statement also highlighted the Mutual Logistic Support Agreement, Comprehensive Strategic Partnership, conduct of trilateral Maritime Security Workshop as well as Exercise MALABAR as the milestones of bilateral defence relations between India and Australia.

India and Australia participated in the fourth iteration of the biennial maritime series called ‘AUSINDEX’ on September 30, 2021.

Key Facts

Significance of the exercise

AUSINDEX maritime exercise provides an opportunity to showcase the ability of conducting ‘high-end maritime warfare training’ with India. It also showcases a range of Australian Navy maritime capabilities.

Background

Indian and Australian Navy started conducting the bilateral maritime exercise called AUSUNDEX in 2015. Over the years, the exercise ‘AUSINDEX’ has grown in complexity. Its third edition was conducted in the Bay of Bengal in 2015. The exercises held in the Bay of Bengal, for the first time, included anti-submarine drills.

India-Australia Maritime Cooperation

India and Australia also conducted “Ex AUSTRA HIND” which is a bilateral Exercise between Armies of both the countries as well as “EX PITCH BLACK” which is a multilateral air combat training exercise of Australia.

All India Institute of Ayurveda (AIIA), under the AYUSH ministry, has developed “Bal Raksha Kit” which is an immunity boosting kit.

Key Points

Aim of the kit

This kit has been developed with the aim of amplifying the immunity of children in order to help them fight against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, that causes covid-19 disease.

Significance of the kit

This kit is significant because no Covid-19 vaccine available for the children in India yet.

Ingredients of the kit

Bal Raksha kit contains a syrup made up of basil, giloy, liquorice, cinnamon and dry grapes, which are have amazing medicinal qualities. The kit also comprises of Annu oil, Sitopaladi and Chyawanprash. These products help in boosting the immunity level with regular consumption.

Who prepared it?

This kit has been developed under the strict guidelines of ministry of Ayush while it was manufactured by Indian Medicines Pharmaceutical Corporation Limited (IMPCL) in Uttarakhand.

What other kit AIIA has developed?

Apart from Bal Raksha Kit, AIIA has previously developed ‘Swasthya Raksha Kit’, ‘Arogya Raksha Kit’ as well as ‘Ayu Raksha Kit’.

Union Minister for Panchayati Raj & Rural Development, Giriraj Singh, launched “People’s Plan Campaign 2021- Sabki Yojana Sabka Vikas” on September 30, 2021.

Highlights

Need of accountable gram sabhas

According to the minister, there is an emergent need of meaningful & accountable Gram Sabhas as well as proper utilisation of funds. There is also a need of raising own source revenues by Panchayats, bridging digital divide in rural areas, use of innovation & technology, converging all the resources available under several Flagship Programmes by Panchayati Raj Institutions etc.

About People’s plan campaign

Aim of Panchayat Development Plan

Panchayat Development plan aims to strengthen the role of elected representatives of Panchayats as well as SHG Women under the DAY-NRLM in Gram Sabha.

Creation of assets

On the occasion, minister also suggested that, Panchayats should create assets from the allocated funds in order to increase the income sources of Panchayats.

Vibrant Gram Sabha Dashboard

Vibrant Gram Sabha Dashboard was launched in order to help in increasing maximum participation by means of meeting of Gram Sabha, meeting of elected Panchayat Public Representatives and Standing Committee meeting of Gram Panchayat.

According to the “Assessment report of District Hospitals” by NITI Aayog, a district hospital in India has 24 beds per 1 lakh population, on an average.

Key Findings

Standard number of beds

According to Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) 2012 guidelines, there should be at least 22 beds per one lakh population in district hospitals. This figure is based on district population average of 2001 Census.

Significance of the study

The findings of the report are significant because it was conducted just before the outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic. Findings of the report mean that when India faced the pandemic, public health infrastructure across the nation including at district level, was not adequate.

On October 1, 2021, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 (SBM-U 2.0) along with the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation 2.0 (AMTUT 2.0). These schemes were launched at Dr. Ambedkar International Centre in New Delhi.

Key Points

Significance of the schemes

In the past 6-7 years, Swachh Bharat as well as AMRUT Missions have brought transformative changes in the lives of people. Both the missions have improved the urban landscape in India by adopting a scientific approach.

AMRUT 2.0 mission

AMRUT 2.0 mission will help in making cities self-reliant. It will ensure water security across the cities. This mission has been launched with the aim of providing 100 percent coverage of water supply to all households in 4,700 urban local bodies. This target will be achieved by providing 2.68 crore tap connections and 100% coverage of sewerage across 500 AMRUT cities. An outlay of Rs 2.87 lakh crore has been sanctioned for this mission.

SBM-U 2.0

SBM-U 2.0 mission seeks to make all cities ‘Garbage Free’. It also seeks to ensure grey and black water management across the cities that are not covered under AMRUT. Mission will focus on source segregation of solid waste by utilizing the principles of 3Rs that is “Reduce, reuse, recycle”. An outlay of Rs 1.41 lakh crore has been sanctioned for SBM-U 2.0.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) published its “UNCTAD Digital Economy Report 2021, recently.

Key Findings of report

Light-touch approach

Light-touch approach is mostly favoured by countries having strong regulatory environments and sufficient regulatory resources in order to monitor compliance of domestic laws. As per report, Philippines’s use of light-touch approach is towards its “dependence” on the outsourcing industry, which is the major economic growth drivers in the country.

Counties following restrictive or Guarded approach

The “restrictive” or “guarded” approach for cross-border data flows is followed by countries like India, China, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Rwanda, Russian Federation, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam.

UNCTAD recommendations

  1. Facilitate “worldwide data sharing,
  2. Develop global digital public goods,
  3. Increase trust and
  4. Reduce uncertainty in the digital economy.

On September 30, 2021, Digi Saksham Programme was launched by the Union Labour and Employment Minister Bhupender Yadav.

Key Facts

Training to youth

Under the DigiSaksham initiative, free of cost training will be provided to more than 3 lakh youth, in digital skills including basic skills & advance computing, in the first year. This training programme can be accessed through the National Career Service (NCS) Portal. The initiative gives priority to the job-seekers from semi urban areas who belongs to disadvantaged communities as well as who have lost their jobs amidst ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

Types of Training

Digi Saksham initiative comprises of three types of training viz.,

  1. Digital Skills self-paced learning
  2. VILT mode training (virtual instructor led) and
  3. ILT mode training (instructor led)- ILT training is in person training and would be conducted for SCs & STs in India, at the Model Career Centres (MCCs) and National Career Service Centres (NCSC).

In what areas training would be provided?

Under the initiative, training would be provided in areas such as Java Script, Data Visualisation, Power Bi, Advance Excel, HTML, software development fundamentals, programming languages, introduction to coding etc.

India-based Dr Rukmini Banerji was awarded with the 2021 Yidan prize on September 28, 2021.

Key Points

Cash Prize

Both the persons will receive HK$30 million which is equal to approximately US$3.9 million. The money includes HK$15 million cash prize and a project fund of HK$15 million, from the Foundation.

Dr Rukmini Banerji

He is the Chief Executive Officer of ‘Pratham Education Foundation’. She was awarded the 2021 Yidan Prize for Education Development. Award recognises her work in improving learning outcomes. He also pioneered the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) assessment approach, revealing literacy and numeracy gaps among children in India. To bridge these gaps, they started “Teaching at the Right Level” (TaRL) program which works with schools and local communities in order to provide basic reading and arithmetic skills. This programme ensures that no children are left behind.

About Yidan Prize

Yidan prize was established by Yidan prize Foundation in 2016. Yidan Prize Foundation is a global philanthropic education foundation, inspiring progress and change in education. It is is an education award, recognizing individuals, or up to three-member teams, who have contributed towards education research & development. It aims to progress learning by means of building a global community that is committed towards advancing ideas in education.

India’s highest science award called “Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award 2021” was presented to the 11 scientists on the occasion of 80th foundation day of Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR).

Key Facts

Recipients of award in 2021

In the year 2021, the recipients of Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar (SSB) Prize for Science and Technology are:

  1. Amit Singh from Indian institute of science, Bengaluru, in Biological Sciences category.
  2. Arun Kumar Shukla from Indian institute of Technology Kanpur, in Biological science category.
  3. Dr Kanishka Biswas in Chemical Sciences category. She is from Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research in Bengaluru
  4. Dr T Govindaraju from Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bengaluru, in the category of Chemical Sciences.
  5. Dr Binoy Kumar Saikia in “Earth, Atmosphere, Ocean & Planetary Sciences”.
  6. Dr Debdeep Mukhopadhyay in Engineering Sciences.
  7. Dr Anish Ghosh and Dr Saket Saurabh in Mathematical Sciences.
  8. Dr Jeemon Panniyammakal in Medical Sciences
  9. Dr Rohit Srivastava
  10. Dr Kanak Saha in Physical Sciences.

Purpose of the award

This award is presented to recognise outstanding Indian work in science and technology.

About the SSB prize

The SSB Prizes are awarded for notable and outstanding research, annually. The prizes comprise of Rs 5,00,000. It is presented in the categories of Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Engineering science, Earth, Atmosphere, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Mathematical Sciences, Physical Sciences and Medical Sciences.

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) approved a credit plan on September 28, 2021 for yak husbandry in Arunachal Pradesh.

Key facts

Significance of the scheme

The credit plan started by NABARD for yak husbandry was found to be feasible in extending advances with the held commercial banks. The credit plan by NABARD has been included in potential linked credit plans (PLCP) of Tawang, West Kameng and Shi Yomi districts of Arunachal Pradesh. This credit plan will boost the livelihood of herders in the state.

About Yak

Yak is one among the most prized animals in Himalayan region because of its multifarious roles in strengthening nutritional security by providing milk and meat. The animal also provides shelter and clothing through its fibres. It is also used as a beast of burden.

Concerns with Yak Population

In past few decades country has witnessed a decline in Yak population. Yak population has declined because of inbreeding and unscientific farming practices. Furthermore, the disillusionment of younger generation because of hardship of yak rearing is one of the major reasons of mass desertions from Yak rearing occupation. The credit scheme by NABARD will help in curbing the reducing trend of yak population. Credit plan will also facilitate profitable farming by promoting entrepreneurship.

“Nata-Sankirtana” festival was started at the Mandap of Jawaharlal Nehru Manipur Dance Academy (JNMDA), Imphal, from September 30, 2021.

Highlights

Different sessions of the festival

Nata Sankirtana

In classical Ragas, Nata sankirtana is a hymn of lord Krishna that synthesizes seevral indigenous rhythms. Sankirtana follows a strict code in its performance with rhythms pattern and costumes that are determined by specific rules & regulation. Sankirtana is performed to mark important occasions in person’s life such as from birth to death. UNESCO had recognized Manipur Nata Sankirtana in 2013.