The US Climate Envoy John Kerry was on a four-day visit to India. During his visit he met the Union Minister of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change Shri Prakash Javadekar. During the meet, the leaders discussed several issues including joint research and collaboration and Climate Finance.
According to International Energy Agency, India is the third largest emitter of Carbon Dioxide. US is the largest emitter of Carbon Dioxide in the world. China follows US as the second largest emitter of Carbon Dioxide. India has set an ambitious target to produce 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022 and 450 GW by 2030.
According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Climate Finance is the finance that aims at reducing the emissions and maintains the increase of resilience of human and ecological systems.
Need for Climate Finance for India
India has set ambitious targets of reducing its carbon emissions. It is estimated that India will require 2.5 trillion USD between 2015 and 2030 to achieve its Nationally Determined Contributions.
John Kerry visited India aiming at consultations that will increase climate ambition ahead of “Leader’s Summit on Climate”.
Leader’s Climate Summit
The Leader’s Climate Summit is hosted by the US. The US President Joe Biden has invited forty world leaders including PM Modi to the Leader’s Climate Summit. The Summit is a key milestone to the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP-26, that is to be held in Glasgow in November 2021. The main objective of Leader’s Climate Summit and COP-26 is to catalyse efforts to keep limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius goal.
During the Summit, the US is to announce its ambitious 2030 Emissions target as its new Nationally Determined Contribution.
In the fiscal year (2020-21) that ended on March 31, 2021, the corporate tax and income tax collected were Rs 9.45 lakh crores.
About the Tax Collections
The tax collections in the fiscal year 2021 exceeded the revised target by 5%.
The tax collected in 2021 was 10% lower than the direct tax collected in the previous year.
In the Union Budget 2020-21, the Government of India predicted that Rs 13.19 lakh crores will be collected from direct taxes. However, this was before the inception of COVID-19 pandemic. After the pandemic, the estimate was reduced to Rs 9.05 lakh crores.
The Net Corporate tax collection for the year 2020-21 was RS 4.57 lakh crores.
The net personal income tax collected was Rs 4.71 lakh crores.
In 2020-21, the issuance of refund has grown by 42%.
Direct Tax Collection: Comparative Analysis
In the financial year 2019-20, the direct tax collected was Rs 10.49 lakh crores.
In the year 2020-21, the direct tax was Rs 9.45 lakh crores.
The target of direct taxes for the fiscal year 2021-22 has been set at Rs 11.08 lakh crores.
Vivad Se Vishwas Scheme
The scheme was launched to settle cases of disputed tax, penalty, interest. It will benefit the taxpayers whose tax demands are locked in multiple disputes solving forums. The scheme aims to settle 483,000 direct tax related disputes that are pending in appellate forums. It provided complete waiver on interest to the taxpayers who paid their taxes by March 31.
So far, the scheme has collected Rs 54,000 crores of tax. The last date for payment under the scheme has been extended to April 30, 2021.
The Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently released the Hindi translation of “Odisha Itihaas”. The book is available in Odia and English so far. It was translated to Hindi by Shankarlal Purohit.
About Odisha Itihaas
The book was written by Utkal Keshari Dr Harekrushna Mahatab.
He wrote the book Odisha Itihaas in Ahmednagar Fort Jail. He was imprisoned here for two years between 1942 and 1945.
He was the first Chief Minister of Odisha. He served as the Chief Minister of Odisha between 1946 and 1950 and again between 1956 and 1961.
He was popularly known as Utkal Keshari.
Utkal Keshari was the leader of the Indian National Congress.
He was born in Bhadrak district of Odisha.
He joined the Independence struggle in 1921.
He was the chairman of the Balasore District Board between 1924 and 1928.
He joined the Salt Satyagraha Movement and was imprisoned in 1930.
He participated in untouchability movement and opened his ancestral temple to all.
He participated in Quit India Movement and was imprisoned again for two years.
He founded the Prajatantra Prachar Samiti.
He started the weekly magazine Prajantantra in 1923. It later became the Daily Prajatantra.
Roles of Mahatab after independence
He acted as the Governor of Bombay from 1955 to 1956.
He played a significant role in the merger and integration of princely states. Dr Mahatab wanted to integrate twenty six Oriya speaking princely states with the Odisha province in 1946 and took several steps to achieve it.
He shifted the capital of Odisha from Cuttack to Bhubaneshwar.
It was Mahatab who sanctioned the construction of Hirakud Dam.
He was imprisoned in 1976 for protesting against the emergency rule.
The Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently appealed to the Chief Ministers of the States to organise “Tika Utsav”.
What is Tika Utsav?
Tika Utsav is a vaccine festival. It is to be held between April 11, 2021 and April 14, 2021. The main objective of the festival is to vaccinate as many people as possible. It will also focus on zero wastage of COVID-19 vaccine.
COVID-19 Vaccination Drive in India
Currently, three states are receiving maximum number of COVID-19 doses. They are Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Gujarat.
COVAXIN and COVISHIELD are the two major COVID-19 vaccines that are currently administered in India.
So far, India has shipped 64 million doses of vaccines to 84 countries in Caribbean, Africa, and Asia. The major recipient countries of the Indian COVID-19 vaccines are Mexico, Canada, and Brazil.
The GoI has planned to cover 250 million people included in “high priority” category by July 2021 under its vaccination programme.
COVAXIN is a government backed vaccine produced by Bharat Biotech. It has an efficacy rate of 81%. More than 27,000 participants have participated in the phase three trials of COVAXIN vaccine. COVAXIN is given in two doses. The time gap between the doses is four weeks. The COVAXIN was prepared from the dead COVID-19 virus.
The COVISHIELD Vaccine is manufactured by Astra Zeneca. Locally, COVISHIELD is produced by Serum Institute of India. It was prepared from a weakened version of a common cold virus called Adenovirus from Chimpanzees. The virus has been modified to look more like COVID-19 virus. It is administered in two doses.
Why did India stick to COVAXIN and COVISHIELD?
Unlike several other COVID-19 vaccines, COVAXIN and COVISHIELD can be stored at 2 to 8 degrees Celsius. Other COVID-19 vaccines like that of Moderna vaccine must be stored at minus seventy degrees Celsius temperature and can only be moved a limited number of times. Administering such vaccines in India is highly challenging as the summer temperatures in India reach fifty degrees Celsius.
The US Navy recently conducted Freedom of Navigation Operation in the Indian Ocean Region near Lakshadweep. During the operation, the US warship entered the Exclusive Economic Zone of India without seeking prior consent from India. The warship that entered Indian EEZ was a Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS John Paul Jones.
United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
According to the UNCLOS, countries cannot prevent ships from using Exclusive Economic Zone. However, according to Indian laws, any foreign military must inform before conducting any activity in the Exclusive Economic Zone of India.
US Stand on the issue
The US Government said that the US forces operate in the Indo-Pacific region on daily basis. All such operations are designated in accordance with international law. Also, the US Government stated that US Forces will continue such operations in the future.
Reasons behind US Freedom of Navigation Operation in IOR
The US Defence publishes an annual Freedom of Navigation Report. According to the report, excessive maritime claims by coastal countries restrict freedom of navigation and overflight. It also restricts lawful uses of the sea. These claims are made through regulations and laws that are inconsistent with the international UNCLOS. If left unchallenged these excessive maritime claims will infringe upon the freedom of the seas enjoyed by all countries. According to the report, India is among the twenty-one other nations where the US forces challenged the claims. The other countries are Pakistan, China, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Russia, Maldives.
What is Freedom of Navigation?
The Freedom of Navigation is an international law according to which ships flying the flag of a sovereign state shall not suffer interference from other states unless otherwise provided in the international laws.
Article 87 of UNCLOS
Article 87 of the UNCLOS says that the high seas are open to all the states whether land locked or coastal. It mentions “Freedom of Navigation” as the right for all states.
Why is India concerned about the US Freedom of Navigation Operation in the Indian Ocean?
The Article 87 of UNCLOS remains a trade off between the developed and the developing countries. This is because, the developed world is interested in maximizing their freedom to sail and explore their seas. On the other hand, the developing countries want to protect their offshore resources and their independence. India being a developing nation is yet to explore its EEZ to the fullest. And thus, is interested in protecting its EEZ. This is one of the main reasons India is concerned about the US Freedom of Navigation Operation in the Indian Ocean Region.
The Government of India recently launched the Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) scheme in ten states. The system is to be rolled out in the country by March 2022. Land parcel is nothing but a portion of large area of land.
What is ULPIN?
The ULPIN is described as “Aadhaar for land”.
The ULPIN is a fourteen-digit Alpha Numeric ID.
The number will be used to identify every surveyed parcel of land.
The identification number is to be launched based on latitude and longitude coordinates of the land parcel.
The pilot testing of ULPIN has been successfully carried out in the states of Haryana, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Sikkim, Goa, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.
The ULPIN has been included in Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme (DILRMP). The DILRMP was begun in 2008 and has been extended several times. The current launch of ULPIN is also under DILRMP. While the programme is to end soon, it has been extended till 2023-24.
India is also implementing National Generic Document Registration System. Recently, the system was implemented in Jammu and Kashmir.
Benefits of ULPIN
The ULPIN will help to develop a land bank.
The ULPIN system will lead India towards Integrated Land Information Management System.
The system will always help to keep the land records up to date.
All the property transactions shall be linked and will get established through the system.
The number will help in preventing land fraud especially in rural areas. This is because, the land records are outdated in rural areas.
Delivery of citizen services of land records through a single window shall be achieved through the system.
The system will make sharing of land record data across the departments easier. This will standardize land data and will eventually bring in effective integration and interoperability across departments.
ULPIN and International Standards
It complies the following international standards:
Electronic Commerce Code Management Association standard
Open Geospatial Consortium Standards
Who recommended ULPIN?
The ULPIN system was recommended by Parliamentary Standing Committee that recently submitted its report to Lok Sabha.
Estimated Cost of ULPIN
According to the Parliamentary Standing Committee Report, it would cost Rs 50 lakh per district to create a modern land record structure in each district.
The report also said that it would cost Rs 270 crores to combine the land records with the Revenue Court Management System.
After implementing ULPIN, the GoI is to link the land record databases with the banks.
Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme
The DILRMP has three main components as follows:
Computerisation of land record
Survey or Re-survey
Computerisation of registration
The progress of DILRMP is as follows:
The basic requirement of computerisation of Land records, that is, Record of Rights has been completed in more than 90% of the country.
The Cadastral Maps have been digitised in more than 90% of the country. Cadastral maps are maps that show the extent, value and ownership of land.
Computerisation of registration and integration of SROs with Land Records have been completed in more than 90% of the country.
The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways Shri Nitin Gadkari recently announced that the project of Khadi and Village Industries (KVIC) called RE-HAB has become a huge success. Thus, it is to be implemented in other states as well. This includes Odisha, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala.
What is Project RE-HAB?
Project RE-HAB is Reducing Elephant Human Attacks using Bees. It was launched at four spots in the Nagarhole National Park of Karnataka. The project aims to prevent elephant human conflicts without creating harm to either of them. The project is highly cost effective.
How does RE-HAB work?
The project uses bee boxes as fence to prevent elephants from entering human habitation. The buzz of the bees irritates elephants. Also, elephants fear that the bees might sting them in the inner side of the trunk and in their eyes.
The bee boxes were provided as a part of Honey Mission.
The Honey Mission was launched by KVIC in 2017. The main aim of the mission is to provide awareness and training in bee keeping.
Need for the Project
The Man-Animal Conflict has increased in the country lately. More than 2,400 people have been killed in conflicts with wild elephants all over India since 2015. On the other hand, more than 510 elephants were killed since 2015 in man-elephant conflicts.
Nagarhole National Park
The Nagarhole National Park is also called the Rajiv Gandhi National Park. It was established in 1955. In 1999, the GoI declared the park as a Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger. In 2021, the Srivilliputhur Meghamalai Tiger Reserve was added to the list.
Nagarhole National Park is a part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
The Ministry of Jal Shakti recently announced that it is to roll out annual planning exercise with the States and Union Territories.
What is the plan?
The exercise is to be conducted by a committee chaired by the Secretary of Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
The Committee will take up two states or Union Territories per day.
The Committee is to do a rigorous scrutiny of the proposed Annual Action Plan for the year 2021-22 prepared by the States and the Union Territories. The plan will then be finalised.
Priorities provided in the Annual Action Plan
The States and Union Territories have given priority to water quality affected areas, Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe majority villages, villages in drought prone and desert areas in their proposed annual action plan.
Fund allocated to Jal Jeevan Mission
The Government of India has allocated Rs 50,000 crores to the Jal Jeevan Mission for the financial year 2021-22.
In addition, Rs 26,940 crores has been assured under the Fifteenth Finance Commission.
In 2021-22, the Government of India has planned to invest more than Rs 1 lakh crore to ensure tap water supply to rural homes.
Jal Jeevan Mission
The Jal Jeevan Mission was announced in 2019. The main objective of the mission is to provide functional household tap connection to every home in India by 2024.
The mission envisages to supply 55 litres of water per person per day.
During the COVID-19 lock down, the Government of India exponentially increased the level of implementation of Jal Jeevan Mission. This was done to boost Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) working hours. The GoI supported the livelihood of migrant workers and workers of unorganised sector through MGNREGA. Also, the wages of MGNREGA were increased. Therefore, a greater number of working hours was needed. This was provided by Jal Jeevan Mission. The working hours of MGNREGA was used to implement Jal Jeevan Mission (pipe laying, plumbing work, digging, establishing rain harvest systems, etc). Apart from Jal Jeevan Mission, the Indian Railways also supported MGNREGA by providing work hours during lock down.
The Ministry of Civil Aviation recently granted permission to the Central Mine Planning Design Institute to survey the coal field areas of Coal India Limited. According to the permission granted, the drones shall be deployed to monitor the mapping and surveying activity, inspection of coalfield. This is a conditional exemption and is valid till April 4, 2022.
UAS Rules, 2021
No Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) shall carry payload except as permitted by DGCA.
No person shall drop from a UAS in motion.
Only Nano class drones can operate in India. However, a qualified remote pilot will be permitted to operate heavy drones.
The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) has full powers to inspect the manufacturing of Unmanned Aerial System or its maintenance facility.
One must be at least eighteen years old to own a drone.
The Food Startups have been permitted to conduct trials for drones.
The Directorate General of Civil Aviation will issue a separate set of rules to enable use of drones for delivering medical supplies or e-commerce.
Central Mine Planning and Design Institute
It is a subsidiary of Coal India Limited. It is a Public Sector Undertaking. It has been rated as a Schedule B and Mini Ratna-II company. It is engaged in field of environmental engineering and provides consultancy and engineering services all over the world.
The Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently held a high-level programme with the President of Seychelles. The Prime Minister presented several gifts to Seychelles during the meet.
Key Highlights of the Event
During the meet, the two leaders jointly inaugurated the new Magistrate Court building in Seychelles.
The Prime Minister handed over a Fast Patrol Vessel of worth Rs 100 crores and a Solar Power Plant with a capacity of 1 MW.
The leaders also inaugurated ten High Impact Community Development Projects (HICDP).
Seychelles appreciated Indian aid during COVID-19 times. India has so far sent 50,000 doses of COVISHIELD vaccine to Seychelles.
President of Seychelles
The current President of Seychelles is Wavel Ramkalwan. His grandfather was from Bihar, India. However, the president was not born in India. He was born in Mahe, Seychelles.
In May 2020, India launched Mission SAGAR. Under the mission, COVID-19 related essential medicines were sent to Mauritius, Seychelles, and Maldives.
India also sent INS Kesari to the countries in Indian Ocean during COVID-19 times. The ship carried medicines to countries such as Seychelles, Mauritius, Madagascar, Maldives and Comoros.
India and Seychelles has close defence ties.
In 1986, India deployed INS Vindhyagiri at Port of Victoria to abort an attempted coup against the then President Rene by the Defence Minister of the country.
The Seychelles Government has leased the Assumption Island to the Indian Navy to build overseas base operations in the island. The Island was leased to India for 30 years under an agreement signed in 2015. The agreement allows India to station Indian military personnel on the ground.
In 2018, PM Modi announced that India is to extend 100 million USD credit to Seychelles to develop defence capabilities.
The International Monetary Fund recently announced that the debt to GDP ratio of India increased from 74% to 90% due to COVID-19 crisis. This is to increase to 99% in 2021. The international financial organisation has also stated that this is to reduce to 80% after economic recovery.
What is Debt to GDP ratio?
The Debt to GDP ratio is the ratio between the debt of the Government measured in the units of its currency to the GDP measured in the same unit. When the Debt to GDP ratio is low, it means that the country produces and sells goods and services that are sufficient to pay back debts without incurring further debts.
The Debt to GDP ratio of India has remained 70% since 1991. The current increase is mainly due to COVID-19 crisis.
Debt to GDP ratio of other countries
At the end of third quarter of 2020, the Debt to GDP ratio of USA was 127.3%.
During the same period, it was:
246.1% in Japan
46.7% in China
What is Public Debt?
The Public Debt in India is the total liability of the Union Government that must be paid from the Consolidated Fund of India. Almost one-fourth of the government expenditure goes into the interest payment.
Public Debt Management Agency
It was established in 2016 by the Ministry of Finance. The Public Debt Management Agency streamlines the borrowings of the Government and helps in achieving better cash management. It was an interim arrangement in the RBI itself. However, it was provided a separate statutory status from that of RBI.
The PDMA plans government borrowings. It manages the liabilities of the Government. It monitors cash balances and improves forecasting of cash. The agency will work towards enhancing the liquidity and efficiency of the market.
A team of scientists from the Bombay Natural History Society recorded a new species of bird. It has been identified as the three banded Rosefinch. The new bird species was identified while exploring the high-altitude coniferous forests of Arunachal Pradesh.
Three branded Rosefinch
The three branded Rosefinch is a resident of southern China and a vagrant in Bhutan. Vagrant is a person with no home.
The bird was first photographed at an altitude of 3,852 meters above the sea level. It was seen along with the flock of white browed Rosefinch. The white browed Rosefinch is commonly seen in this landscape.
According to the scientists the three branded rosefinch may be using the high altitude temperate coniferous forests of Arunachal Pradesh as a passage while they were migrating from China to Bhutan.
New Bird Species in India
Since 2016, 104 new species of birds have been added to the checklist of India. This has been possible mainly because of intensive surveys especially in the least studied landscapes such as eastern Himalayas.
Three Branded Rosefinch
The Three Branded Rosefinch belongs to the finch species of birds.
Finch birds have world wide distribution except for Australia and polar regions.
State of India’s Bird, 2020
The State of India’s Bird, 2020 report was released at the thirteenth Conference of Parties of Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. The report categorised 101 species of birds in India as “high concern”, 319 as “moderate concern” and 442 as “low concern”. The following was found by the report:
The Indian Vultures experienced catastrophic population decline. The White-rumped Vulture suffered the most severe decline followed by Indian Vulture and Egyptian Vulture.
On the other hand, the Indian Peacock, the National bird of the country has increased dramatically in the last few decades. The increase in numbers has been attributed mainly to the penalties for poaching peacocks under Schedule I of Wildlife Act. They have been categorised as “Least Concern” in the IUCN Red List.
Recently, a group of astronomers have discovered a dozen of quasars that were warped by naturally occurring cosmic lens. Warping is twisting. With this discovery, the number of known quasars have increased by 25%. This can help to determine the expansion rate of the universe and will also help address other mysteries.
What are Quasars?
Quasars are luminous cores of distant galaxies that are powered by black holes. The mass of Quasars is millions to billions of times the mass of the sun. The most powerful quasars have luminosities thousand times greater than the Milky Way galaxy.
The nearest Quasar to the earth is Markarian 231. It is 600 million years away from the earth.
Quasars are usually found in the centres of active galaxies.
Recently, several discrepancies have emerged over the precise value of the expansion rate of the universe. The expansion rate of the universe is called Hubble’s constant. There are two primary means that can be used to determine Hubble’s constant. One is through measurement of distance and speed of objects in the local universe. The other method to find the Hubble’s constant is by extrapolating the rate from models based on distant radiation left over from the birth of the universe. The later is called the Cosmic Microwave background.
How will Quasars help in understanding the Universe?
The main issue is that the two methods of Hubble Constant determination do not match. However, the discovery of Quasars will help to solve the controversies around Hubble Constant. A Quasar based determination of Hubble constant will allow the astronomers to conclude which of the value is correct.
Hubble’s Constant describes how fast the universe is expanding. It is one of the keystones to understand the expansion of the universe. Thus, Quasars will help in understanding the Universe by solving the discrepancies around Hubble’s constant.
The Asian Development Bank recently approved 484 million USD for CKIC (Chennai-Kanyakumari Industrial Corridor) in Tamil Nadu.
About the Project
The project will upgrade 590 km of state highways in the CKIC influence areas.
The Climate Change adaptation measures are to be incorporated in the highway upgrades. This includes improved drainage, resizing of bridges and culverts, raised road embankments in critical sections.
The project is to strengthen road safety programmes through advanced technologies for road monitoring.
The project will also improve the planning capacity of Tamil Nadu Highway and Minor Ports Department.
CKIC is a part of East Coast Economic Corridor.
The main objective of CKIC is to increase the participation of manufacturing industry in production networks and create jobs along the corridor.
Need for the project
The state of Tamil Nadu has strong state of economy with several manufacturing industries such as engineering, automobiles, pharmaceuticals, garments, and aerospace. However, central and southern regions of the state that are far away from the current industrial hubs around Chennai need better connectivity for inclusive growth. This is the main objective of the project.
East Coast Corridor
It stretches from West Bengal to Tamil Nadu.
The East Coast Economic Corridor connects India to the production networks of south east and east Asia.
The complete East Coast Corridor was developed with the help of funds from Asian Development Bank. It is a multimodal regional maritime corridor that plays a vital role in unifying the domestic market.
In 2016, ADB approved Phase 1 of the East Coast Corridor, which is, Vishakhapatnam-Chennai Industrial Corridor.
The East Coast Corridor plays a crucial role in Make in India campaign.
It supports port-led industrialisation strategy under the Sagar Mala initiative.
The project also supports Act East Policy of India by linking domestic companies with global production networks in South East and East Asia.
The Assembly Committee on Women Empowerment recently submitted its report to the Meghalaya Government. The Committee was led by Ampareen Lyngdoh. The Committee has found that three out of every thousand pregnant women in the state are testing positive for HIV in the state.
Key Findings of the Committee
According to the Committee, there are five thousand plus cases of HIV/AIDS in Meghalaya. The number of cases in the state is increasing alarmingly.
With the discussions made with the police department and social welfare department, the committee has identified that there is an urgent need to address the issue of commercial sex workers.
The Government of Meghalaya has been suggested to frame a policy to address the issue of HIV/AIDS.
The committee has recommended to conduct a study to find out the reason on why HIV is more prevalent among the pregnant women in the state.
The major concern that needs immediate action is the prevalence of HIV among sex workers in the East Khasi hills.
According to MACS (Meghalaya AIDS Control Society), there are more than two hundred sex workers in the state that test HIV positive.
There are schemes of the Central Government that try to rehabilitate sex workers in the state. However, it is currently not functioning due to very slow flow of funds from the centre.
Meghalaya Health Policy
In March 2021, the Meghalaya State Government adopted a new Health Policy. The policy does include AIDS. However, it has not prioritised the issue. The seriousness of the problem does not reflect in the policy. Also, the policy lacks to provide a detailed plan to eliminate AIDS in the state. The policy simply states the following:
The policy will aim to achieve “Global Target of 2020” where 90% of the people living with HIV will receive antiretroviral therapy.
According to NACO (National AIDS Control Organisation), 0.54% of population in Meghalaya are living with HIV. Also, Meghalaya has the highest Syphilis cases in the country according to HIV Surveillance Sentinel, 2017. Around 1.03% of all pregnant have tested positive for the disease.
The Ministry of Commerce and Industry recently notified Copyright (Amendment) rules, 2021. The amendment has been made to bring the existing Copyright rules in the country with parity with the other relevant legislations.
Currently, the Copyright regime of India is governed by Copyright Act, 1957 and the Copyright rules 2013.
Why were the amendments made?
The main objective of the amendment of Copyright Rules is to ensure smooth and flawless compliance in the light of technological advancement in digital era. The new rules will help India adopt towards electronic means as primary mode of communication. It is highly important to achieve the goals of Digital India.
What are the amendments made?
The Copyright societies will have to make an Annual Transparency Report for each financial year.
The amendments have harmonised the Copyright rules with the provisions of Finance Act, 2017. This has been achieved by merging Copyright Board with the Appellate Board.
The compliance requirements of registration works have been largely reduced. The applicant now has the liberty to file the first ten and last ten pages of source code with no blocked out or redacted portions.
The time limit of the Central Government to respond to an application has been extended. When an applicant applies to get registered as a copyright society, the central government shall now respond in one hundred and eighty days. This has been done to provide enough time so that the application can be comprehensively examined.
What is Copyright?
Copyright is a type is intellectual property.
It gives the owner exclusive right to make copies of his or her creative work. It can be education, artistic, literary or music.
According to World Intellectual Property Organisation, Copyright protects two types of rights. They are Economic rights and moral rights. Economic rights allow the owners to derive financial reward from the use of their works. On the other hand, the moral rights allow authors to take certain actions to protect their link with their work.